A study of the orders of insects with the emphasis on morphology, taxonomy, and life cycles. Prerequisites: General Biology.
Dendrology is a field and laboratory investigation of ecologically and commercially important species of trees, shrubs, and woody vines in the United States with a particular focus on native and naturalized taxa in the Southeast. The roles of these arborescent species in shaping the natural communities and eco-regions of Alabama are emphasized along with global comparisons. Herbarium specimens of taxa present in local natural areas are prepared. Prerequisites: General Ecology with lab course, or permission of instructor.
A study of the physical, chemical, geological, and biological aspects of freshwater ecosystems as influenced by activities in surrounding watersheds. Prerequisites: general biology, general ecology, general chemistry. Co-requisite: BIO L513
Field and laboratory exercises in lake and stream science, including instrumentation, measurement, sampling, and analysis. Co-requisite: BIO 5513
This course focuses on topics in microbial metabolism, food spoilage, food preservation techniques, and food-borne pathogens and their control. Some molecular techniques will be introduced. Prerequisites: BIO 3372/L372. Co-requisite: BIO L514.
This lab focuses on advanced microbiological laboratory techniques including enumeration and analysis of bacteria in food, water, and dairy products. Prerequisites: BIO 3372/L372. Co-requisite: BIO 5514.
A study of the taxonomy, diversity, and ecology of microbial populations in ecosystems, with the emphasis on the roles that they play in bio-geochemical cycles, their contributions to metabolic diversity, their interactions with animals and plants, their niches and bioremediation. Prerequisites: microbiology, organic chemistry. Co-requisite: BIO L516
Microbial ecology laboratory techniques including isolation, identification, and enumeration of micro-organisms from aquatic and terrestrial environments. Co-requisite: BIO 5516
A study of the basics of vertebrate identification, with emphasis on phylogeny, anatomy, morphology, life histories, habitats, distributions, and conservation. Prerequisites: General Biology, General Chemistry
This course covers animal and plant populations, food supply, competition, disease, fecundity, distribution, and other environmental factors. Management of endangered species and protected ecosystems are included. Prerequisites: General Ecology, Genetics, General Chemistry, Statistics. Co-requisite: BIO L521
Field exercises in identifying ecological problems, formulating and testing hypotheses, and evaluating data using standard statistical methods. Co-requisite: BIO 5521
A survey of vascular plants from different habitats in southeast Alabama. Principles of plant taxonomy, including history and systems of classification and nomenclature, the use of dichotomous keys, and general herbarium techniques. Emphasis is placed on plant identification and habitat types. Prerequisites: General Biology, General Ecology. See semester hour limits listed under Course Restrictions in General Regulations section.
Biology, ecology, evolution, and the conservation of birds. Topics include the origin and diversification of birds, seasonal migrations, bird communities, and the consequences of global change for bird diversity. Labs are integrated and include field trips for the observation and identification of birds and a project developed by students. Prerequisites: General Biology, General Ecology (BIO 2229), or permission of the instructor.
An introduction to environmental history of the United States from the 18th century to the late 20th century, emphasizing the post WWII period. The course will focus on the historical development of the science of ecology, the origins of environmental problems and solutions attempted by government and experts, and responses by grassroots activists over time. Prerequisite: Graduate standing at Troy University.
A study of the principles related to the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms. Prerequisite: Organic Chemistry, Anatomy and Physiology.
An assessment of terrestrial and aquatic toxicity of chemical agents following standard protocols.
This course provides a comprehensive review of the historical, ecological, and anthropic factors (such as plate tectonics, glacial-interglacial cycles, soil, climate change) affecting the geographic distribution and abundance of animals and plants, with an emphasis on mammals, birds, and their habitats. The course includes lectures by the instructor and students and discussion of articles from the primary literature. Prerequisite: General Ecology with lab course, or permission of the instructor. Co-requisite: BIO 5554.
Biogeography Field Study is an introduction to the distribution of flora and fauna across the eco-regions of Alabama, the fifth most biodiverse state in America, gained through immersion in selected natural areas. Discussions and student presentations focus on natural communities and species assemblages with an emphasis on adaptations of flora and fauna to different environments. Comparisons with similar regions on other continents are investigated. Prerequisite: General Ecology with lab course, or permission of the instructor. Co-requisite: BIO 5553.
The course is aimed to provide knowledge about the human viruses and zoonoses, their impact on human health, and the epidemiology aspects of human viral infections, the geographic spread, host ethic disparities, the role of host genes and other factors, preventive measures, available treatment and vaccination. Students will also study the classification and nomenclature of viruses, their replication strategies as well as key viral genes and proteins that are explored as targets for antiviral therapy and vaccine development. Prerequisites: Molecular Biology/ Lab.
This course covers the taxonomy, structure, life histories, distribution, pathogenesis, and control of parasitic protozoa, helminths, and arthropods, with the emphasis on those of medical importance. Prerequisites: Any 3000-level BIO lecture and lab. Co-requisite: BIO L571
A laboratory study of parasitic protozoa, helminths, and arthropods, with the emphasis on those of medical importance. Co-requisite: BIO 5571
Specialized topics not generally included in course offerings. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.
An examination of theory and practices required in performing stream environmental assessment as currently practiced by state and federal agencies in their attempt to preserve biological integrity. Sustainable management of natural resources and a systems approach to environmental problem solving will be emphasized. Topics covered include water quality, habitat assessment, indicator species used in ecological inventory with a concentration on macro-invertebrate and fish assemblages, and the index of biological integrity. Prerequisites: BIO 1101/L101; 2202/ L202 or 2229/L229. Co-requisite: BIO L579.
Laboratory instruction and hands-on field training regarding stream environmental assessment as currently practiced by state agencies in their attempt to preserve biological integrity. Topics covered include measurement of water quality, habitat, and practice sampling techniques, with a concentration on fish and macro-invertebrate assemblages. In addition, students will learn the use of the index of biological integrity using their own collections of fish assemblages. Prerequisites: BIO 1101/L101; 2202/L202 or 2229/L229. Co-requisite: BIO 5579.
A study of the microscopic anatomy and function of cell types and tissues of mammalian organs. Prerequisite: general biology. Co-requisite: BIO L580
A study of the microscopic anatomy of cell types and tissues of mammalian organs. Co-requisite: BIO 5580
The study of the fundamental principles of chromosomal organization and gene expression, with emphasis on the structure and function of nucleic acids and proteins. Prerequisites: Genetics, Micro-biology, Organic Chemistry. Co-requisite: BIO L582
Experimental approaches in molecular analyses of nucleic-acids and proteins, with the emphasis placed on common techniques utilized in clinical and research settings. Co-requisite: BIO 5582
The course will introduce the students to the field of genomics, how genome sequence data is obtained and analyzed, what can be learned from an individual’s genome, and how Data Mining of the genome can uncover the basis of disease susceptibility and treatment of many human diseases. The course will introduce students to a variety of NCBI- and web-based computational tools for solving common problems in biological research and address cutting-edge research in epigenetics, pharmacogenomics, genetic testing, genome editing, and microbiome. The course will also introduce students to some aspects of “beyond the human species” genomics, in particular plant genomics and the genomics of the microbiome. Prerequisite: Molecular Biology
Additional information is indexed under “Guided Independent Research and Study.
Additional information is indexed under “Guided Independent Research and Study.”
Examination of major ethical theories as they apply to environmental, biological, and medical issues. The linkage of ethics to decision-making in social, public, and business policy. Course develops skills in understanding value systems and framing ethical positions.
Concepts and practices underlying procedures for environmental resource management, including planning, organizing, and conducting programs.
This course will provide each student with significant “hands-on” experiences in college level instruction and develop the knowledge and skills teachers need to implement inquiry-based instruction. Students will work under the direct mentorship and super-vision of the course instructor and will be trained in techniques, current presentations, and teaching methods of laboratory-based biology. (Students seeking one (1) semester hour credit will be required to assist in one laboratory course. Students seeking two (2) semester hours credit will be required to assist in two laboratory courses or laboratory courses with multiple sections.)
An examination of global environmental issues, such as global climate change, ozone depletion, and acid precipitation. This course also deals with alternative in developing global policies and treaties to address these problems.
An examination of practices used in analysis of land, water, and air to determine the impact of human activities such as construction, mining, clearing, and industrial operation. Planning approaches and eco-logical constraints, economic evaluation, and quantitative approaches to predict impact.
Presentations on interdisciplinary principles and concepts, current issues, and new studies and research from a variety of fields, with environmental science serving as a unifying theme. Faculty members and outside speakers will present guest lecturers. Candidates for the master’s degree in the thesis option will present their research findings and conclusions.
An examination of the approaches to resolving environmental disputes through alternative dispute resolution techniques.
This course is a foundation for scientific decision-making involving contaminants and their effects on biological systems. It covers the basic principles of environmental toxicology including bioaccumulation, the biological effects of toxicants from the molecular to global level of organization, and a basic understanding of the risk of environmental pollutants and the science of risk assessment. Prerequisites: Eight semester hours or equivalent of chemistry
The impact of the environment on humans as well as the human impact on the environment serve as the dual focus of this course. Environmental agents of physical, chemical, and biological nature with adverse effect on human health will be considered. The physiological, molecular, cellular, genetic, and biochemical mechanisms of action of environmental carcinogens, toxins, pollutant, and other disease-causing environmental agents and the interaction of various environmental agents with biological systems will be addressed.
The student has the opportunity to engage in intensive study of a particular subject or learn a pertinent skill, which fits his/her academic and/or professional needs but is not available in the regular curriculum. This study may include educational activities or training outside of the University. The student will follow the guidelines that the Department established for the supervision and the pursuance of this study. Requires approval of the student’s adviser and chairs.
A study of pollution of atmosphere, surface water, and soil and groundwater from animate activities and inanimate processes. Adverse effects, fate, and trans-port of pollutants in air, soil, and water. Prerequisite: general chemistry.
Theory and analytical techniques used in both field and laboratory for the analysis of air, water, and soil contaminants. Prerequisite: general chemistry
An introduction to land use planning and land use tools, including zoning and comprehensive planning. The course also examines the interaction between land use and environments and explores strategies to reduce environmental impacts and protect natural resources.
This course is designed to present the basic aspects of water quality, quantity, and policy to the students to help them make informed decisions on how to man-age the social science issues related to water supply, demand, and sustainable water management within the U.S. and globally. This course specifically covers properties of water, ecological implications of water, water resources, hydrologic cycle, physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water, stream, lake and reservoir water quality, water pollution, best management practices, water laws, regulations, and standards, and water economics. This course is an elective for all concentrations within the Environmental and Biological Sciences program.
The course is aimed to provide knowledge about the epidemiological concepts and methods used in Epidemiology, the key terms and definitions used in Epidemiology such as the epidemiological triangle, chain of infection, reservoir, the portals of entry and exit, the modes of transmission, susceptible host, association and causality, Henle-Koch relationships, the strength of association, ratios, proportions, rates, prevalence, incidence, mortality data, measures of health impact, type of mortality rates, descriptive studies – case reports and case series, ecological studies, cross-sectional / prevalence studies, case-control studies, odds ratio cohort studies, 2+2 tables, as well as Analytic and experimental studies, randomized controlled trials, confounding and effect modification, surveillance and prevention, disease prevention, screening tests, and outbreak investigations. Prerequisites: Human Population Genetics
The course is aimed to provide knowledge about cancer the definition of cancer, the common features of cancer cells and tumors, the cancer cell theory, the genetic and epigenetic pathways leading to the development of cancers, the epidemiological aspects of various cancers and some clinical aspects of cancer diagnostic and treatment. Prerequisites: Molecular Biology / Lab
A study of the steps needed and programs required to insure that public and private sector organizations are in compliance with federal and state environmental regulations. Prerequisites: An undergraduate ecology or environmental course, or approval of adviser.
Fundamental principles of population genetics with a focus on human populations
Introduction to the micro and macro aspects of environmental economics. The course will explore the various economic and institutional means of controlling environmental problems for effectiveness, efficiency and equity.
A graduate level GIS course geared for beginners that presents the understanding behind the four functional and physical components of a GIS: data input; storage and retrieval; manipulation; and data output. Multiple GIS applications are also discussed. Prerequisites: BIO 6630, BIO L630, or permission of chair. Co-requisite: BIO L650
This lab is intended for average computer users with little or no experience in ArcView GIS or any other GIS software. At the end of the labs, students will be able to use ArcView to view, query, analyze, chart, and map geographic data. Co-requisite: BIO 6650.
This course is the discipline of pathology (or laboratory medicine) that is concerned with the detection and measurement of biochemical changes in disease. This course will give a succinct overview, the “big picture” and relevance of biochemistry and essential pathways that regulate and affect various disorders. Discussion of potential targets for research and drug development through the use of case studies will be included. Prerequisites: Cell Biology/Lab, General Chemistry/Lab, Genetics or equivalent, or by permission of instructor.
Case studies on the overexploitation and degradation of aquatic ecosystems and their resources, with a primary focus on freshwater systems. Prerequisite: An undergraduate ecology course is highly recommended.
Examination of the principles, practices, and philosophy of measuring, maintaining, and enhancing biological diversity. The course focuses on the applications of ecology, population biology, and genetics of the conservation of keystone and rare species and ecosystems. Prerequisite: An undergraduate ecology course is highly recommended.
This course will increase student awareness of sustainability issues concerning the future survival of humans and other organisms on the planet. The course specifically covers the following: biological diversity trends, human population growth, agriculture and food consumption issues, water use and supplies, global warming and effects on biological diversity, sustainable fisheries, forest products and services, and other issues.
Specialized topics not generally included in course offerings. A maximum total of 4 semester hours is allowed for program credit.
This course will include hands-on statistical experience emphasizing hypothesis testing using a statistical software system. It will combine several elements of research methodology including developing a grant proposal that will include topic selection, literature search, question formulation, methods, statistics, and a budget. Prerequisite: Three semester hours in probability and statistics or permission of instructor. A grade of “B” or better is required.
The course is aimed to provide knowledge about the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and its human equivalent – human leukocyte anti-gens (HLA): the master systems for self-nonself-recognition. The students will learn about the variations in HLA loci and their association with human disorders, such as autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, infectious diseases, cancers, gastrointestinal dis-eases, neurological and psychiatric disorders, et al., as well as transplantation immunology, the variations in the immune response to infectious diseases and vaccination, immunodeficiencies and the treatment of human cancers. Prerequisites: Immunology/Lab.
Under the guidance of the student’s adviser and the chair of the department, the student may pursue original research (independent acquisition and interpretation of data) in a particular area of environmental or biological science. The completion of a thesis is required. The results and conclusions must be successfully defended before the student’s graduate committee. Grading system is Pass / Fail. Prerequisites: 3.0 GPA and permission of the Chair of the Biological and Environmental Sciences department.